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+<!DOCTYPE html>
+ <meta charset="utf-8"/>
+ <style>
+ table.head, table.foot { width: 100%; }
+ td.head-rtitle, td.foot-os { text-align: right; }
+ td.head-vol { text-align: center; }
+ div.Pp { margin: 1ex 0ex; }
+ </style>
+ <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" type="text/css" media="all"/>
+ <title>CRYPTO_VERIFY16(3MONOCYPHER)</title>
+<table class="head">
+ <tr>
+ <td class="head-ltitle">CRYPTO_VERIFY16(3MONOCYPHER)</td>
+ <td class="head-vol">3MONOCYPHER</td>
+ <td class="head-rtitle">CRYPTO_VERIFY16(3MONOCYPHER)</td>
+ </tr>
+<div class="manual-text">
+<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="NAME"><a class="selflink" href="#NAME">NAME</a></h1>
+<b class="Nm" title="Nm">crypto_verify16</b>,
+ <b class="Nm" title="Nm">crypto_verify32</b>,
+ <b class="Nm" title="Nm">crypto_verify64</b> &#x2014;
+ <span class="Nd" title="Nd">timing-safe data comparison</span>
+<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="SYNOPSIS"><a class="selflink" href="#SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></h1>
+<b class="In" title="In">#include
+ &lt;<a class="In" title="In">monocypher.h</a>&gt;</b>
+<div class="Pp"></div>
+<var class="Ft" title="Ft">int</var>
+<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify16</b>(<var class="Fa" title="Fa">const
+ uint8_t a[16]</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t b[16]</var>);
+<div class="Pp"></div>
+<var class="Ft" title="Ft">int</var>
+<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify32</b>(<var class="Fa" title="Fa">const
+ uint8_t a[32]</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t b[32]</var>);
+<div class="Pp"></div>
+<var class="Ft" title="Ft">int</var>
+<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify64</b>(<var class="Fa" title="Fa">const
+ uint8_t a[64]</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t b[64]</var>);
+<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="DESCRIPTION"><a class="selflink" href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></h1>
+Cryptographic operations often require comparison of secrets or values derived
+ from secrets. Standard comparison functions like
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">memcmp</b>() tend to exit when they find the first
+ difference, leaking information through timing differences.
+<div class="Pp"></div>
+As an example, say a message authentication code (MAC) is sent over the network
+ along with a message, but the correct MAC is secret. If the attacker attempts
+ a forgery, one does not want to reveal &#x201C;your MAC is wrong,
+ <i class="Em" title="Em">and it took 384 microseconds to tell</i>&#x201D;. If
+ the next attempt takes 462 microseconds instead, it tells the attacker they
+ just guessed a byte correctly. That way, an attacker can derive the correct
+ MAC byte by byte, and successfully forge a message. This has lead to practical
+ attacks in the past.
+<div class="Pp"></div>
+To avoid such catastrophic failure,
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify16</b>(),
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify32</b>() and
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify64</b>() provide comparison functions
+ whose timing is independent from the content of their input. They compare the
+ first 16, 32, or 64 bytes of the two byte arrays
+ <var class="Fa" title="Fa">a</var> and <var class="Fa" title="Fa">b</var>.
+<div class="Pp"></div>
+When in doubt, prefer these functions over
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">memcmp</b>().
+<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="RETURN_VALUES"><a class="selflink" href="#RETURN_VALUES">RETURN
+ VALUES</a></h1>
+These functions return 0 if the two memory chunks are the same, -1 otherwise.
+<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="SEE_ALSO"><a class="selflink" href="#SEE_ALSO">SEE
+ ALSO</a></h1>
+<a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="intro.html">intro(3monocypher)</a>
+<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="HISTORY"><a class="selflink" href="#HISTORY">HISTORY</a></h1>
+The <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify16</b>(),
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify32</b>(),
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_verify64</b>() functions first appeared in
+ Monocypher 1.1.0. They replaced the
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_memcmp</b>() and
+ <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_zerocmp</b>() functions that were present
+ until Monocypher 1.0.1.</div>
+<table class="foot">
+ <tr>
+ <td class="foot-date">March 31, 2020</td>
+ <td class="foot-os">Linux 4.15.0-106-generic</td>
+ </tr>