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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <meta charset="utf-8"/>
  <style>
    table.head, table.foot { width: 100%; }
    td.head-rtitle, td.foot-os { text-align: right; }
    td.head-vol { text-align: center; }
    div.Pp { margin: 1ex 0ex; }
  </style>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" type="text/css" media="all"/>
  <title>CRYPTO_LOCK(3MONOCYPHER)</title>
</head>
<body>
<table class="head">
  <tr>
    <td class="head-ltitle">CRYPTO_LOCK(3MONOCYPHER)</td>
    <td class="head-vol">3MONOCYPHER</td>
    <td class="head-rtitle">CRYPTO_LOCK(3MONOCYPHER)</td>
  </tr>
</table>
<div class="manual-text">
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="NAME"><a class="selflink" href="#NAME">NAME</a></h1>
<b class="Nm" title="Nm">crypto_lock_aead</b>,
  <b class="Nm" title="Nm">crypto_unlock_aead</b>,
  <b class="Nm" title="Nm">crypto_lock</b>,
  <b class="Nm" title="Nm">crypto_unlock</b> &#x2014;
  <span class="Nd" title="Nd">authenticated encryption with additional
  data</span>
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="SYNOPSIS"><a class="selflink" href="#SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></h1>
<b class="In" title="In">#include
  &lt;<a class="In" title="In">monocypher.h</a>&gt;</b>
<div class="Pp"></div>
<var class="Ft" title="Ft">void</var>
<br/>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock</b>(<var class="Fa" title="Fa">uint8_t
  mac[16]</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">uint8_t *cipher_text</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t key[32]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t nonce[24]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t *plain_text</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">size_t text_size</var>);
<div class="Pp"></div>
<var class="Ft" title="Ft">int</var>
<br/>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>(<var class="Fa" title="Fa">uint8_t
  *plain_text</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t key[32]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t nonce[24]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t mac[16]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t *cipher_text</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">size_t text_size</var>);
<div class="Pp"></div>
<var class="Ft" title="Ft">void</var>
<br/>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock_aead</b>(<var class="Fa" title="Fa">uint8_t
  mac[16]</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">uint8_t *cipher_text</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t key[32]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t nonce[24]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t *ad</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">size_t ad_size</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t *plain_text</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">size_t text_size</var>);
<div class="Pp"></div>
<var class="Ft" title="Ft">int</var>
<br/>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock_aead</b>(<var class="Fa" title="Fa">uint8_t
  *plain_text</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t key[32]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t nonce[24]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t mac[16]</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t *ad</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">size_t ad_size</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">const uint8_t *cipher_text</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">size_t text_size</var>);
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="DESCRIPTION"><a class="selflink" href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></h1>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock</b>() encrypts and authenticates a
  plaintext. It can be decrypted by
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>(). The arguments are:
<dl class="Bl-tag">
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">key</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">A 32-byte session key, shared between the sender and the
      recipient. It must be secret and random. Different methods can be used to
      produce and exchange this key, such as Diffie-Hellman key exchange,
      password key derivation (the password must be communicated on a secure
      channel), or even meeting physically. See
      <a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="crypto_key_exchange.html">crypto_key_exchange(3monocypher)</a>
      for key exchange, and
      <a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="crypto_argon2i.html">crypto_argon2i(3monocypher)</a>
      for password key derivation.</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">nonce</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">A 24-byte number, used only once with any given session
      key. It does not need to be secret or random, but it does have to be
      unique. <i class="Em" title="Em">Never</i> use the same nonce twice with
      the same key. This would reveal the XOR of 2 different messages, which
      allows decryption and forgeries. The easiest (and recommended) way to
      generate this nonce is to select it at random. See
      <a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="intro.html">intro(3monocypher)</a> about
      random number generation (use your operating system's random number
      generator).</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">mac</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">A 16-byte <i class="Em" title="Em">message authentication
      code</i> (MAC), that can only be produced by someone who knows the session
      key. This guarantee cannot be upheld if a nonce has been reused with the
      session key, because doing so allows the attacker to learn the
      authentication key associated with that nonce. The MAC is intended to be
      sent along with the ciphertext.</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">plain_text</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">The secret message. Its contents will be kept hidden from
      attackers. Its length however, will <i class="Em" title="Em">not</i>. Be
      careful when combining encryption with compression. See
      <a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="intro.html">intro(3monocypher)</a> for
      details.</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">cipher_text</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">The encrypted message.</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">text_size</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">Length of both <var class="Fa" title="Fa">plain_text
      and</var> <var class="Fa" title="Fa">cipher_text</var>, in bytes.</dd>
</dl>
<div class="Pp"></div>
The <var class="Fa" title="Fa">cipher_text</var> and
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">plain_text</var> arguments may point to the same
  buffer for in-place encryption. Otherwise, the buffers they point to must not
  overlap.
<div class="Pp"></div>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>() first checks the integrity of an
  encrypted message. If it has been corrupted,
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>() returns -1 immediately.
  Otherwise, it decrypts the message, then returns zero.
  <i class="Em" title="Em">Always check the return value</i>.
<div class="Pp"></div>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock_aead</b>() and
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock_aead</b>() are variants of
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock</b>() and
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>(), permitting additional data.
  Additional data is authenticated, but <i class="Em" title="Em">not</i>
  encrypted. This is used to authenticate relevant data that cannot be
  encrypted. The arguments are:
<dl class="Bl-tag">
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">ad</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">Additional data to authenticate. It will not be encrypted.
      May be <code class="Dv" title="Dv">NULL</code> if
      <var class="Fa" title="Fa">ad_size</var> is zero. Setting
      <var class="Fa" title="Fa">ad_size</var> to zero yields the same results
      as <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock</b>() and
      <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>().</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">&#x00A0;</dd>
  <dt class="It-tag"><var class="Fa" title="Fa">ad_size</var></dt>
  <dd class="It-tag">Length of the additional data, in bytes.</dd>
</dl>
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="RETURN_VALUES"><a class="selflink" href="#RETURN_VALUES">RETURN
  VALUES</a></h1>
<b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock</b>() and
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock_aead</b>() return nothing.
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>() and
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock_aead</b>() return 0 on success or -1 if
  the message was corrupted (i.e. <var class="Fa" title="Fa">mac</var>
  mismatched the combination of <var class="Fa" title="Fa">key</var>,
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">nonce</var>, <var class="Fa" title="Fa">ad</var>
  and <var class="Fa" title="Fa">cipher_text</var>). Corruption can be caused by
  transmission errors, programmer error, or an attacker's interference.
  <var class="Fa" title="Fa">plain_text</var> does not need to be wiped if the
  decryption fails.
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="EXAMPLES"><a class="selflink" href="#EXAMPLES">EXAMPLES</a></h1>
The following examples assume the existence of
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">arc4random_buf</b>(), which fills the given buffer
  with cryptographically secure random bytes. If
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">arc4random_buf</b>() does not exist on your system,
  see <a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="intro.html">intro(3monocypher)</a> for
  advice about how to generate cryptographically secure random bytes.
<div class="Pp"></div>
Encryption:
<div class="Pp"></div>
<div class="Bd" style="margin-left: 5.00ex;">
<pre class="Li">
uint8_t key        [32];    /* Random, secret session key  */ 
uint8_t nonce      [24];    /* Use only once per key       */ 
uint8_t plain_text [12] = &quot;Lorem ipsum&quot;; /* Secret message */ 
uint8_t mac        [16];    /* Message authentication code */ 
uint8_t cipher_text[12];              /* Encrypted message */ 
arc4random_buf(key,   32); 
arc4random_buf(nonce, 24); 
crypto_lock(mac, cipher_text, key, nonce, plain_text, 
        sizeof(plain_text)); 
/* Wipe secrets if they are no longer needed */ 
crypto_wipe(plain_text, 12); 
crypto_wipe(key, 32); 
/* Transmit cipher_text, nonce, and mac over the network, 
 * store them in a file, etc. 
 */
</pre>
</div>
<div class="Pp"></div>
To decrypt the above:
<div class="Pp"></div>
<div class="Bd" style="margin-left: 5.00ex;">
<pre class="Li">
uint8_t       key        [32]; /* Same as the above        */ 
uint8_t       nonce      [24]; /* Same as the above        */ 
const uint8_t cipher_text[12]; /* Encrypted message        */ 
const uint8_t mac        [16]; /* Received along with text */ 
uint8_t       plain_text [12]; /* Secret message           */ 
if (crypto_unlock(plain_text, key, nonce, mac, cipher_text, 12)) { 
    /* The message is corrupted. 
     * Wipe key if it is no longer needed, 
     * and abort the decryption. 
     */ 
    crypto_wipe(key, 32); 
} else { 
    /* ...do something with the decrypted text here... */ 
    /* Finally, wipe secrets if they are no longer needed */ 
    crypto_wipe(plain_text, 12); 
    crypto_wipe(key, 32); 
}
</pre>
</div>
<div class="Pp"></div>
In-place encryption:
<div class="Pp"></div>
<div class="Bd" style="margin-left: 5.00ex;">
<pre class="Li">
uint8_t key  [32];    /* Random, secret session key  */ 
uint8_t nonce[24];    /* Use only once per key       */ 
uint8_t text [12] = &quot;Lorem ipsum&quot;; /* Secret message */ 
uint8_t mac  [16];    /* Message authentication code */ 
arc4random_buf(key,   32); 
arc4random_buf(nonce, 24); 
crypto_lock(mac, text, key, nonce, text, 12); 
/* Wipe secrets if they are no longer needed */ 
crypto_wipe(key, 32); 
/* Transmit cipher_text, nonce, and mac over the network, 
 * store them in a file, etc. 
 */
</pre>
</div>
<div class="Pp"></div>
In-place decryption:
<div class="Pp"></div>
<div class="Bd" style="margin-left: 5.00ex;">
<pre class="Li">
uint8_t        key  [32]; /* Same as the above             */ 
const uint8_t  nonce[24]; /* Same as the above             */ 
const uint8_t  mac  [16]; /* Received from along with text */ 
uint8_t        text [12]; /* Message to decrypt            */ 
if (crypto_unlock(text, key, nonce, mac, text, 12)) { 
    /* The message is corrupted. 
     * Wipe key if it is no longer needed, 
     * and abort the decryption. 
     */ 
    crypto_wipe(key, 32); 
} else { 
    /* ...do something with the decrypted text here... */ 
    /* Finally, wipe secrets if they are no longer needed */ 
    crypto_wipe(text, 12); 
    crypto_wipe(key, 32); 
}
</pre>
</div>
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="SEE_ALSO"><a class="selflink" href="#SEE_ALSO">SEE
  ALSO</a></h1>
<a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="crypto_key_exchange.html">crypto_key_exchange(3monocypher)</a>,
  <a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="crypto_wipe.html">crypto_wipe(3monocypher)</a>,
  <a class="Xr" title="Xr" href="intro.html">intro(3monocypher)</a>
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="STANDARDS"><a class="selflink" href="#STANDARDS">STANDARDS</a></h1>
These functions implement RFC 8439, with XChacha20 instead of Chacha20.
  XChacha20 derives from Chacha20 the same way XSalsa20 derives from Salsa20,
  and benefits from the same security reduction (proven secure as long as
  Chacha20 itself is secure).
<h1 class="Sh" title="Sh" id="HISTORY"><a class="selflink" href="#HISTORY">HISTORY</a></h1>
The <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock</b>() and
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock</b>() functions first appeared in
  Monocypher 0.1. <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock_aead</b>() and
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_unlock_aead</b>() were introduced in
  Monocypher 1.1.0. In Monocypher 2.0.0, the underlying algorithms for these
  functions were changed from a custom XChacha20/Poly1305 construction to an
  implementation of RFC 7539 (now RFC 8439) with XChacha20 instead of Chacha20.
  The <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock_encrypt</b>() and
  <b class="Fn" title="Fn">crypto_lock_auth</b>() functions were removed in
  Monocypher 2.0.0.</div>
<table class="foot">
  <tr>
    <td class="foot-date">February 29, 2020</td>
    <td class="foot-os">Linux 4.15.0-106-generic</td>
  </tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>